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2016 Vinayaka Chavithi Puja Book Telugu


Ganesh Chaturthi , Vinayaka Chavithi , Pillayar Chaturthi  will be celebrated by Hindus residing in Usa, Europe and other parts of the world on Sep 4 2016 . The festival would take place in India on Sep 5 2016. The difference is due to Muhurta based on local sunrise time and Bhadrapada Shukla Chaturthi occuring on Sep 4th in other parts of the world and on Sep 5th in India.

Please find below the Puja Vidhanam ( Procedure) in various Languages. The Puja Vidhi remains the same and one could even use a Puja book from any previous years. The only portion of the Puja that changes is basically the Sankalpam ( vow, desire, basis of prayer) that contains the name of the year and location of the devotee.

Sankalpam for Usa ( West coast )  -easily modified for east coast,europe etc.

Sri maha vishnu raagnaya, pravarta manasya, dwiteeya parardhe, sweta varaha kalpe, vivaswata manwantare, kaliyuge,

pradhama paade, Krauncha (land of Eagle) dweepe, Ramanaka Varshe, Indra khande (emipre of Indra), Ramyaka Paschimadese (western country), Sapta samudrantare

Samastha devata, brahmana, hari harada sannidhou, asmin vartamana, vyawaharika chandra maanena  Durmukha samvathsare, 

Uttara aayane  Grishma  ruthou (season), Bhadrapada mase (month), Sukla Pakshe, Chaturthi Tithou (day), subha tithou, Shani vasare (week name) Subha vaasare, Chitra Nakshatre (star), subha nakshatre, subha yoge, subha karane, evam guna visheshana visishtayaam,

sriman __(your name) ____ naama dheyaaham, sreemataha ___(Wife name)___ naamnyam,  ____ gotrodbhavasya, ____  nagare, Asmat śobhana gṛhe mama upatta duritakshaya dwara, sri parameswara mugdhisya,

 sri parameswara preetyardham Ganapathi Pujam, karishyee…


Sri maha vishnu raagnaya, – By the will and Directive of Lord Vishnu ( One could easily change this to Lord Shiva or Lord Ganesha )

pravarta manasya,

dwiteeya parardhe – In the 2nd great division

sweta varaha kalpe –  The biggest division of Time or Kalpa . This is the Kalpa of the White boar

vivaswata manwantare- Among the Epochs of time this is Vaivaswata Manuwantara

kaliyuge – Among the Yugas or divisions of time this is Kali Yuga


pradhama paade – In the Kali yuga in the first quarter of the Yuga.

Krauncha (land of Eagle) dweepe – In the land that worships the Eagle.

Ramanaka Varshe – In the grand year of Ramanaka

Indra khande (emipre of Indra) – Among the division of Land known as Indra.

Ramyaka Paschimadese (western country) – In the western regions of the land

Sapta samudrantare – At the edge of the Seven seas


Mooshika Vahana ( Mouse Vehicle ) -Lord Ganesha Tanjavur Painting ( All rights rest with Wikimedia)

Samastha devata, brahmana, – With the presence of the Divine beings, Learned ones

hari harada sannidhou, – With the presence of both Hari and Hara, Vishnu and Shiva

asmin vartamana, – In the current state

vyawaharika chandra maanena – In the Lunar year named as

Durmukha samvathsare, – 2016 in the Hindu calendar is Durmukha year

Uttara aayane – Summer Solstice , Movement of the Sun

Grishma  ruthou (season)- In the season of the rains in India ( In usa or europe this would be Grishma Ruthou )

Bhadrapada mase (month)- In the month of Bhadrapada

Sukla Pakshe- In the bright half of the lunar month

Chaturthi Tithou (day) – On the fourth Lunar day

subha tithou – On the auspicious day

Ravi vasare (week name) -On a Sunday

Subha vaasare, Chitra Nakshatre (star)- On the day of the Chitra Star

, subha nakshatre, subha yoge, subha karane – Muhurta has three details, Yoga, Karana and Nakshatra.

evam guna visheshana visishtayaam – With all the good qualities.


Lord Ganesha Painting ( all rights rest with wikipedia)

sriman __(your name) ____ naama dheyaaham,

sreemataha ___(Wife name)___ naamnyam,

____ gotrodbhavasya – Substitute your gotra


Las Angela Nagare – In the city of Los angeles ( one can easily substitute any other city )

Asmat Sobhana Grihe –  In the house that I am renting. People owning houses and doing the Puja in their own House would say this as  ” Asmat Swa Grihe ”

sri parameswara mugdhisya,

 sri parameswara preetyardham Ganapathi Pujam, karishyee…  For the pleasure of God and with his blessings, would like to worship Lord Ganesha with a Puja.


Puja Procedure Links 

Classic Vinayaka Vrata Kalpamu from the 1950’s


2016 Vinayaka Chavithi Puja Book ( All rights with Mulugu)


 Ganesha Chaturthi Puja Book in English ( All rights with   – Sankalpam needs to be changed older year


 Pillayar Chaturthi Puja Book in Tamil ( All rights with Mantraonline) -Sankalpam needs to be changed older year


Ganesha Chaturthi Puja Book in Kannada ( All rights with Mantraonline) -Sankalpam needs to be changed older year


Ganesha Chaturthi Puja Book in Malayalam ( All rights with Mantraonline) -Sankalpam needs to be changed older year


If you do not feel comfortable with chanting any of the above procedures, use the below video from youtube.

Video of Vinayaka Chavithi Puja ( All rights rest with Hindupad) 


May Lord Ganesha’s grace reach you and your family .











Vinayaka Chavithi-Significance of Herbs


The beauty of ritual is that one can pass on immense benefits to the masses in a very simple manner without having to involve in complicated discussions. The ancient Indians took this to a whole new level by turning every festival into an opportunity to connect with the elements, commune with the divine and at the same time heal people on the mental, physical and emotional levels.

Very soon in the next two days most Indians will celeberate Vinayaka Chavithi or Ganesh Chaturthi or Pillayar Chaturthi as it is known in multiple regions of India .Many would also religiously follow the puja vidhi as it is published in many daily newspapers or as it has been passed down from generation to generation. However very few would focus on the meanings behind the ritual or why certain things have to be done.

Understanding the ritual enhances the beauty of the whole thing and will also help the next generation. Today let us look at the 21 leaves used as part of Ganesha Worship.

1) Why Leaves

Every Puja and Murthi in Hinduism has it own distinct set of Puja materials. This is because the form being worshipped is different. Form and Sound are intertwined and when both these change the Yantra ( 3D representation) also changes. The quality of the Murthi and Shakti also changes.

For example

-Indian Bael (Aegle marmelos)  is exclusively used for Lord Shiva .  On the pure physical level the Bael levels have the chemical composition to purify water and also heal the liver. On the spiritual level, this is one of the leaves that has the capacity to absorb a large amount of energy . Water infused with Bael leaves poured over the Shiva linga and then given to the Devotee’s imparts the same energy easily to the masses.

Also using leaves as part of Puja delivers the distinct message that even leaves are sacred and one should have a healthy respect for the Environment. Exposure to the leaves and inhaling the aromatic smells allows for nasal ingestion of the natural chemicals in the leaves.

On the spiritual level the leaves enhance the quality of energy being perceived.


Bilva Tree India ( all credits rest with wikimedia)

2)  Leaves specifically used for Lord Ganesha/Vighneswara/Ganapati 

21 Leaves are used as part of Lord Ganesha’s Puja. Please find below the Sanskrit name, English name and the botanical name of the leaf and its benefits.

Sanskrit Name        Telugu Name     English Name        Botanical Name        Health Benefits

Machipatram          Machipatramu   MugWort        Artemesia Vulgaris   Anti spasmodic,Tonic

Brihatipatram       Tella Mulaka    Indian Nightshade  Solanum Indicum  Respiratory relief

Bilvapatram           Maaredu          Indian Bael           Aegle Marmalos   Anti Diabetic

Durvarapatram     Garika        Bermuda grass    Cyanodon Dactylon   Antimicrobial, Anti viral

Datturapatram    Ummetta    Jimson Weed  Datura Stramonium  Pain Relief

Badaripatram     Regu      Indian Jujube  Ziziphus Mauritania  Rheumatism, Cough relief

Apamargapatram    Uttareni  Devil’s horsewhip Achyranthus Aspera   Asthma, Snakebite

Tulasipatram     Tulasi   Holy Basil Ocimum sanctum    Respiratory relief,Anti inflammatory

Chootapatramu     Mamidi  Mango leaves  Mangifera Indica  Scabies, Anti Diabetic

Karaveera Patramu    Ganneru    Indian Oleander  Nerium Indicum  Tonic, Cardiotonic

Vishnukranta  Vishnukanta  Dwarf morning glory Evolvulus Alsinoides  psychotropic

Dadimipatramu  Danemma  Pomegranate   Punica granatum  urinary infections

Devadaaru patramu  Devadaru  Deodar Cedar  Cedrus Deodar  Skin diseases

Maruvaka Patramu  Maruvaka   Marjoram  Origanum majorana  High blood pressure

Sindhuvara Patramu   Vavilli  Chinese Chaste tree  Vitex nirgundo    hormone balance

Jaji Patramu   Jaji  Royal Jasmine   Jasminum grandiflorum     Oral Disorders

Gandaki Patramu    Devakanchanm    Karaya Gum   Sterculia Urens  Skin diseases

Shami Patramu    Jammi    Prosopis specigera  respiratory problems

Ashwatha Patramu  Raavi  Sacred Fig   Ficus religiosa  blood purification, diabetes

Arjuna Patramu    Tella Maddi  Tropical Almond  Terminelia Arjuna  Joint Pains

Arka Patramu   Jilledu     Milkweed Calotropis Procera   Skin diseases, Wounds



Arjuna Patramu ( Terminalia Arjuna- all credits rest with Wikimedia)



Vitex Nirgundo- Chinese Chastetree-Sindhuvara Patramu


We will explore the Puja itself in our next post.


Harvard NeuroScientist experiences Heaven


It has been quite some time since I have updated the blog and also I do apologize for being unable to respond to many of the comments.Over the next few weeks will definetly attempt to address some of the comments. Science and spirituality need not be at loggerheads and the latest proof that they can co-exist together comes from a Harvard Neuroscientist who experienced Heaven while he was in Coma and luckily retained his cognitive abilities to describe it in great detail after his return to consciousness.

This story comes courtesy of Newsweek. Image credits also rest with Newsweek.

The good doctor also managed to publish a book with his account of the experience.

Thousands of people have had near-death experiences, but scientists have argued that they are impossible. Dr. Eben Alexander was one of those scientists. A highly trained neurosurgeon, Alexander knew that NDEs feel real, but are simply fantasies produced by brains under extreme stress.

Then, Dr. Alexander’s own brain was attacked by a rare illness. The part of the brain that controls thought and emotion—and in essence makes us human—shut down completely. For seven days he lay in a coma. Then, as his doctors considered stopping treatment, Alexander’s eyes popped open. He had come back.

Alexander’s recovery is a medical miracle. But the real miracle of his story lies elsewhere. While his body lay in coma, Alexander journeyed beyond this world and encountered an angelic being who guided him into the deepest realms of super-physical existence. There he met, and spoke with, the Divine source of the universe itself.


You could definetly read the good doctor’s account in detail in the below link.

There is no scientific explanation for the fact that while my body lay in coma, my mind—my conscious, inner self—was alive and well. While the neurons of my cortex were stunned to complete inactivity by the bacteria that had attacked them, my brain-free consciousness journeyed to another, larger dimension of the universe: a dimension I’d never dreamed existed and which the old, pre-coma me would have been more than happy to explain was a simple impossibility.

1.The Doctor’s experience proves what meditation essentially strives for…Pratyahara or withdrawal of the senses inward.The pausing of the activity in the cortex is a similar phenomenon that occurs in individuals when they are in deep meditation. It feels like a switch has been flicked in the brain which has silenced all thoughts.

The doctor goes on…

Toward the beginning of my adventure, I was in a place of clouds. Big, puffy, pink-white ones that showed up sharply against the deep blue-black sky.

Higher than the clouds—immeasurably higher—flocks of transparent, shimmering beings arced across the sky, leaving long, streamerlike lines behind them.

Birds? Angels? These words registered later, when I was writing down my recollections. But neither of these words do justice to the beings themselves, which were quite simply different from anything I have known on this planet. They were more advanced. Higher forms.

A sound, huge and booming like a glorious chant, came down from above, and I wondered if the winged beings were producing it

2. The doctor like he mentions in the article saw luminous beings whose presence has been proclaimed by many  spiritual paths and the sound he refers to in the post is the Anahata Nada supposed to be heard by serious practioners when they concentrated on the Anahata Chakra ( Heart region )


3.The doctor goes on about his experience and he is able to take in various sights and sounds. But the most important part of the experience he receives these message.

The message had three parts, and if I had to translate them into earthly language, I’d say they ran something like this:

“You are loved and cherished, dearly, forever.”

“You have nothing to fear.”

“There is nothing you can do wrong.”

He also goes on to describe the vast blackness he experienced…

Later, when I was back, I found a quotation by the 17th-century Christian poet Henry Vaughan that came close to describing this magical place, this vast, inky-black core that was the home of the Divine itself.

“There is, some say, in God a deep but dazzling darkness …”

That was it exactly: an inky darkness that was also full to brimming with light.

Also in his own words.

There would be many who would argue the doctor might be imagining things but in the very starting of the article he clearly states his cortex functions were just a little off and not damaged like other Near death experiences. The above experience carries a lot of weight coming from a Harvard Neuroscientist. The debates can rage on forever and I would like to summarize this with a quote…do read the article though, it will prove to you that the ancient Indian sages knew what they were talking about.


To the Faithful No proof is necessary…To the doubtful No amount of proof is sufficient.

Shiva as SmaraHara -Eraser of Memory and Desire


Smara stands for many meanings in Sanskrit. The prominent meanings are love,remembrance ,longing and memory. Smarana is the act of remembering something.The god of love kamadeva is also referred to as Smara . One of the most pious names of Lord Shiva is Smarahara. This name has a special significance and holds the key to how one can go beyond memory. Why does one need to go beyond memory or erase memories. What is the relation between memory and karma. The aim of this post is to examine those areas.

Page 1272 of the Monier Williams English to Sanskrit Dictionary contains many more meanings for the word root Smara.Feel free to take a look at it.

The name Smarahara for Lord Shiva occurs in the Shiva Mahima Stotram composed by Panchadanta .It also occurs in the Atma Arpana Stuti of the great mystic poet philosopher Appayya Dikshitar who lived in the 16th century.

Atma Arpana Stuti is a collection of 50 verses steeped in the deepest devotion to Lord Shiva. Goddess Kali is praised as the consort of Smarahara ( Shiva) in the Karpuradi Stotra. Kalidasa’s Amarakosha also uses the word Smarahara for Shiva.


Verse from Atma Arpana Stuti

In the above shloka Appayya is describing the ease with which Lord Shiva bestows boons.In the third stanza he is praising Lord Shiva as Smarahara who is pleased with simply the offering of the leaves of the Arka and Drona plants .Just with the offering of two leaves the Lord bestows the entire universe.


Verse 24 of the Shiva Mahima Stotram addresses Lord Shiva as Smarahara again.


Shiva Mahima Stotra Verse


The beauty of Sanskrit is that a single name can have multiple meanings and all of them present a unique view of the meaning. In reality when we try to understand consciousness we would have to talk in terms of experiences. All experiences create one or the other form of memory. It is this memory which propels us to act in a certain way. The most fundamental block of memory in biology is genetic memory or the memory of a DNA cell. The way you are right now is because of millions of years of evolution has shaped the memory of your cells in a particular way.DNA memory takes many forms and the field dealing with the non genetic code changes that get passed on from generation to generation is called Epigenetics.


Refer to this article from Natural History Magazine on what Epigenetics is all about.


Most people have the false notion that only millions of years of evolution has an effect on the genes.The truth is the environment and experiences can heavily influence the genes and it is very much possible to pass this on to the next generation.


Good book on Epigenetics

So in other words Experience creates Memory which in turn creates an craving for that experience. The experience again reinforces the Memory.This in a nutshell is the Karmic memory of a person which will force the person to act on those cravings unconsciously driven by the neural patterns of his brain .

This memory is termed as Vasana in Sanskrit or the Karmic residual pattern which resides in memory and recreates the craving for that particular experience.


Lord of the March of Time-Shiva as Kalabhairava

(Images courtesy of External sources.All Credits rest with them for Images)


To be Continued…..In part 2 let us look at how karmic memory actually works.






Sravana Pournima-RakshaBandhan-UpaKarma-Part 2


Continuing the blogpost from yesterday. I had explained the reasons for Sravana Pournami being known also as Hayagreeva Jayanti. Let us now look at the other auspicious events associated with Sravana Pournami.


Balarama Jayanti : Mythology says Lord Balarama also was born on the same day. Though some regions of India celebrate Balarama Jayanti on Akshya Tritiya , I believe the scriptures say that Lord Balarama was born on the full moon day in the month of Sravana.

Pavitropana: This is celebrated in Gujarat .Interestingly this is dedicated to Lord Shiva and it is a custom to submit a cotton thread dipped in the Pancha Amruta ( Five sacred substances-Milk,Ghee,Curd etc) to Lord Shiva. You will find the link to the cotton thread in other parts of India as well.


Jhulan Poornima ( West Bengal) & Gamha Purnima ( Orissa ) : In both these places this day is dedicated to Radha and Krishna. In Orissa worship is performed to the Idols in the Jagganatha Puri temple and also worship is performed to Cows and Livestock since they contribute a lot to the livelihood in an agrarian society.


Radha and Krishna on Swing

Jhulan Yatra for Radha and Krishna

( Images courtesy of external sources..All credits rest with them ) .


Changing of the Sacred Thread

Upakarma ( Andhra/Karnataka ) – Janou Purnima ( Uttarkhand) – Avani Avittam (Tamilnadu )

The reason for choosing this day is twofold.As we explored in the previous blogpost Lord Hayagreeva bestowed the Vedas back to mankind on this day.Also there is a subtle shift in the energy of the planet starting with the movement into Dakshinayana in June and after Sravana Purnima the change accelerates.Many students start the serious study of Yajurveda on this day .

Also tarpana is performed for the Devas and Pitris on the same day thanking them for the opportunity to take birth as a human being.

Contrary to the misconception prevalent in Hindusim today. The Yagnopavit was not to symbolize one’s birth or caste.It could be worn by a serious student who wished to pursue brahma vidya.This is a huge topic and I would have to dedicate a whole post on the distortion of the modern caste sytem .Anywaz here is the relevant verse from the Rig veda to why a Yagnopavita would be worn.


á  sÚryasya  rashmíbhiH  pári  vyata  tántuM  tanvAnás  trivRtaM  yáthA  vidé  ( Rig Veda 9.86.32)


1.The three threads signify the three pillars of life

2.One who wears the thread recognizes his teacher as his guru and grasps the knowledge from him like we grasp the rays of the sun.

3.It is part of his duty to repay the debt of birth to his forefathers, debt of knowledge to the teachers and debt of being human to the almighty.

The ancient Vedic seers gave the right to pursue knowledge to any serious seeker.Anywaz a full blown discussion on this will require multiple posts.


Rakhis hanging at stalls

Raksha Bandhan: This day is also celebrated as Raksha Bandhan. Tradition holds that Yami the sister of Yama tied a sacred thread to his hand . Also Draupadi tied a piece of cloth imploring Lord Krishna when he was fighting a battle. Lord Krishna was extremely touched by the gesture and made sure Draupadi was protected at each step of the Mahabharata starting with when the Kauravas attempt to disrobe her in the middle of the assembly.It is only Lord Krishna who comes to her rescue.

Hence this day has been known as the day to symbolize the bond of brothers and sisters.

Sravana Pournima-Raksha Bandhan-Hayagreeva Jayanti-Rakhi Pournami


One of the most Auspicious days of the Shravan month would be August 1ST.This days is celebrated by many names in different parts of India. It is known as Shravan Pournami, Raakhi Pournami, Upakarma, Avani Avittam and Hayagreeva Jayanti.

Technically speaking Avani Avittam refers to the day on which Sravana Nakshatra ( Avittam) is visible in the night sky with a full moon. Shravana Pournami technically falls on August 1 ( Usa Timing).For India timing August 1 would still be Pournami but occurs with Uttarashada Nakshtra and August 2nd would be Avani Avittam.Some parts of India would celebrate it on August 1st  as well.


Significance of the Day

Hayagreeva Jayanti :  Lord Hayagreeva was one of the Avatar’s of Lord Vishnu though it is not traditionally included in the Dashavatara scheme. There are many versions of the story dealing with the origin of Lord Hayagreeva.All of them convey a deep metaphysical meaning in their own way. The story has multiple layers of meanings and a short post would not do justice to it fully.I will post a full version of the story later.

Shorter Version: The story can be found both in the Devi Bhagawatam and also in the Mahabharata.Long ago when there was nothing but the great void, Lord Narayana was in yoganidra reclining upon his serpent mount.  The Lord is both without attributes and also with attributes. It is interesting to note that the story begins with creative destruction of the universe and then proceeds to creation.

Bhu Tattwa( Element representing the earth…not earth itself) then merges into the Jala Tattwa . Jala Tattwa merges into Agni , Agni merges into Vayu,Vayu merges into Akasha. Please note in Hindu mythology that Akasha is the all encompassing element.It has the capability to hold everything. Akasha finally merges into cosmic mind. The cosmic mind merges with Nature or Prakriti .Finally Prakriti merges into Purusha ( Cosmic being ) and finally Purusha merges into the Paramatma .

Then creation begins with darkness enveloping the known universe and from this darkness of the great void begins the intent of the Paramatma to view itself and this in reverse gives rise to Brahma and the process reverses itself.

Lord Hayagreeva blessing Brahma

Lord Brahma thus created from the great void starts the process of creation of the entire cosmos. As a part of the process Lord Brahma starts writing down the Vedas and he is occupied with the task for many thousands of years. The story says with the passage of time , ego enters the mind of Lord Brahma  and he starts feeling very proud for the creation of the Vedas. Lord Narayana notices this and decides to rectify the situation. Lord Narayana passes his divya dristhi ( divine vision ) on a pair of water droplets hanging on the Lotus and out of the two droplets arise two Asuras. They are known as Madhu and Kaitabha.


Metaphysically both the Asuras represent the Sattva guna and Rajo guna. Madhu and Kaitabha immediately pounced upon the Vedas that Lord Brahma was writing and disappeared taking the Vedas along with them. Lord Brahma realized his ego was the cause of this mishap and appealed sincerely to Lord Narayana to retrieve the Vedas and help him continue the process of Creation. No creation is possible without knowledge of the cosmos and the Vedas represent all the knowledge of the cosmos.

Lord Narayana wakes up from his Yoga Nidra , agrees to help Lord Brahma and takes the form of a being with the body of a man and head of horse.

Haya literally means Horse and Greeva means neck. Hayagreeva is the Lord with the head of a Horse. The Lord in the form of Hayagreeva is associated closely also with the Sun .The Sun is the source of all creation in the Universe.If the Sun were not there , plants would not be there to create food through photosynthesis and animals and human beings would not exist either .

The story proceeds to state then that the Lord had to wage war with Madhu and Kaitabha for a long time before recovering the Vedas. The metaphysical meaning being that overcoming Sattwa and Rajo guna as a part of yoga sadhana takes a lot of effort.Even Sattwa becomes an hindrance at a point of time in the yogic evolution. It is like a golden chain binding a person.


Lord Hayagreeva is worshipped before starting one’s education .Shri Vadiraja Teertha the great saint of Karnataka composed many hymns in praise of Lord Hayagreeva at Udipi.


Continued with next Post on Rakhi Pournima and Upakarma

Tattwa Theory Sankhya-25 Tattwa’s


Work has been keeping me extremely busy and that has led to the long delay of no posts appearing since the past 3 months. That will no longer be the problem and articles should start appearing much more regularly.Thanks for the patience and I will reply to the comments that have been posted in the past few months.

Drishti the sanskrit word for sight is derived from the word root Drish (perception , sight ) which also gives rise to the word Darshana. The seer’s of the ancient vedic system had formulated six pathways of perception to help the common man better understand the world around him .These six systems of philosophical thought or perception were called the Shad-Darshana’s .( Shad=six)

  • Nyaya -> Logic (not justice as often is mistakenly perceived ) . 🙂 Justice itself is derived from the word root Just.Nyaya is the philosophical system of using logic to understand the world.
  • Vaiseshika-propounded by Sage Kannada .There are ten divisions to this work which we shall explore some other time . Vaiseshika is basically perception of special aspects of reality.
  • Yoga -> Union of everything.Yoga itself is derived from the word root Yug which means union. To achieve this one can take recourse to various paths such as Bhakti, Karma , Hatha etc ….
  • Karma-Mimamsa-> The path of perception where one understands clearly ( mimamsa) what one’s actions imprint upon the world and what the world imprint’s upon oneself.Also this system explores the Karma Kanda rituals of the vedas and meaning behind those rituals.
  • Vedanta -> Literally meaning end of the Vedas .Philosophical system pertaining to exploring the purpose of the human soul and various other metaphysical issues.

Sankhya -> Derived from the word root Khya which means that which can be measured or counted. This is the philosophy that explains or counts the descent of the soul or cosmic evolution and metamorphsis into the world as you witness it today. Sankhya provides the theoretical basis for Ayurveda, Astrology and many other vedangas.

Sankhya was propounded by sage Kapila and Lord Krishna proclaims thus in the Bhagavad Gita.

Chapter 10 Verse 26

asvatthah sarva-vrksanam
devarsinam ca naradah
gandharvanam citrarathah
siddhanam kapilo munih


asvatthah–the banyan tree; sarva-vrksanam–of all trees; deva-rsinam–of all the sages amongst the demigods; ca–and; naradah–Narada; gandharvanam–the citizens of the Gandharva planet; citrarathah–Citraratha; siddhanam–of all those who are perfected; kapilah munih–Kapila Muni.


Of all trees I am the holy fig tree, and among sages and demigods I am Narada. Of the singers of the gods [Gandharvas] I am Citraratha, and among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila.

Sage Kapila is also mentioned prominently in the Svetasavatara upanishad.Let us explore what Sankhya is all about.

Philosopher’s have often debated about the nature and functioning of the world ,but every philosopher will agree about two things. You will always need an observer and observed for a thing to materialize. Let us take an common example :  The sun rises every day on the eastern hemisphere and is watched by millions around the globe. The rising of the sun is only true in this plane of reference of the earth,it would not hold true for an observer present on say Mars. Tomorrow if an catastrophic event wipes out the inhabitants of earth and the sun still rises on the eastern hemisphere ,you would not be able to claim the occurence of the sunrise since the very act requires somebody to observe it.

The above might be a very crude explanation and modern quantum physics has a lot of theories revolving around this pet theme of relativity and observers. Also when this is extended to the sub atomic domain this gives rise to Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle which all of you might have studied as a part of your high school curriculum where the very act of observing an sub atomic particle will cause an uncertainity in its position.

To cut a long story short ,you will always need an observer and observed for an event to transpire in that particular plane of reference. Sankhya says in this plane of reference of the cosmos the observer and observed roles are taken by Purusha and Prakriti .Please note Purusha does not mean man and Prakriti woman.Purusha refers to the Universal consciousness or the consciousness which is ever present.

Prakriti refers to the entire material cosmos. Sankhya says originally there was only energy/primordial consciousness pervading the entire universe. You can call it by various names but it was basically energy in the entire cosmos. 🙂 Sankhya playfully says this energy had the desire to witness itself ..even god gets bored with himself. Imagine for a second you are a part of the ocean as a water drop and all around for miles you only see water and only yourself. You would naturally have the desire to turn yourself into something separate ( maybe a wave ) to witness yourself.

This playfull nature of the Universal consciousness is the first desire and gives rise to Prakriti .The very act of observing its own self gives rise to the material world.

1.Purusha is the first tattva.

2.Prakriti is the second tattva given rise from Purusha

🙂 Now Prakriti which has separated from Purusha with the immense resources of the cosmos at its disposal starts witnessing the vastness of its own self and marvels at it giving rise to Buddhi or Intellect.

3.Intellect or Buddhi is the third tattva given rise from Prakriti.

4.At the witnessing of it’s own self Prakriti marvels at its own creation .The very act of marvelling creates an separation between Prakriti and Purusha giving rise to Ahamkara or Ego .

5.Eg0  essentially is the birth of material creation since it gives rise to Manas or the mind which thinks a million thoughts .

From the Manas are born the Pancha Maha Bhutas or five elements which actually create the world.In the next post we will explore the Pancha Maha Bhutas.

P.S Purusha and Prakriti can be thought of as Shiva and Shakti or as Sriman Narayana and Lakshmi and can also take any other form personalized to the stream of devotion.

Purusha and Prakriti as Ardhanarishwara